Science, Capitalism, and Knowledge Commodities
This working group invites scholars to think about knowledge creation through the analytical lens of capitalist extraction. Why capitalist extraction in particular? Because scientific extraction often occurs on account of the logic of the market and then yields materials refined according to that same logic. This market can be economic, in the case of bio-piratedpharmaceuticals, or intellectual, in the case of the search for dark matter. Historians and sociologists of science have in recent decades insisted on the materiality of scientific knowledge. An emphasis on practices, places, and material cultures have brought knowledge out of theaether and into the hands of laborers, technicians, scientists, and lay practitioners carrying out their actions in concrete settings. Thinking of knowledge in terms of resources or raw materials refined into commodities takes a further step in this direction. Resource extraction opens up questions about the means and social conditions, sometimes in a colonial context, of knowledge production. Refinement sheds light on continuums between the land and the lab, and on the technological systems required to process observations into a final product.
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Tuesday, May 24, 2022 2:00 pm to 3:30 pm EDT
24 May 2022
2pm to 3:30pm Eastern
Robin Scheffler, MIT, will present an exciting essay titled "Biotechnology and the Urban Geography of Knowledge Production." This piece grows out of research for Robin's forthcoming book, Genetown: The Greater Boston Area and the Rise of American Biotechnology.
You can check out Robin's work here: http://robinscheffler.mit.edu/
April 26, 2022
Due to circumstances outside of their control, our April presenter will not be able to share a paper. Since we still have the meeting time alotted, we conveners are hoping to have a group discussion with everyone who's interested in the future direction of the reading group.
We might talk future directions, interesting topics, and what's next. Are there any speakers who it would be good to invite to the group? Any focused historiographi conversations that could be fruitful? Any timely topics?
We'll meet over zoom at 2pm EDT on Tuesday 26 April.
All the best,
Eun-Joo Ahn, Josh McGuffie, and Lee Vinsel
March 22, 2022
Cyrus Mody, Maastricht University, will share his paper "Oil Spillovers and the Ambiguities of Scarcity in the Long 1970s"on Tuesday 22 March at 2pm Eastern. Here is the abstract:
"The 1970s saw an intense global debate about resource scarcity and related issues: consumption, conservation, pollution, overpopulation. This debate was propelled by events such as publication of the Limits to Growth report and the UN Stockholm Conference of 1972, and especially the OAPEC oil embargo of 1973. From 1973 to 1979, the experience of car-free Sundays and long lines for petrol (temporarily) persuaded global publics that oil was a finite and scarce resource.
There are many conspiracy theories - some of them plausible - about the oil industry's role in the embargo and in the scarcity debate more generally. What is certain is that people associated with the oil industry fostered that debate - from both the "cornucopian" and "neo-Malthusian" camps. Oil actors and oil firms were also surprisingly active in alternative energy in this period: most of the major companies and many of the minors had in-house programs and/or partnerships in nuclear energy (both fission and fusion), solar, geothermal, the hydrogen economy (batteries, fuel cells, and electric cars), biomass, etc. The windfall profits and political pressures arising from the oil crises of '73 and '79 also led oil firms to invest massively in non-oil technologies: biotech, artificial intelligence, semiconductor manufacturing, and even advanced golf club technology! Yet when the price of oil declined in the 1970s oil companies retreated from those investments and slowly turned to climate denialism as an alternative strategy.
This talk surveys the oil industry's complex role in all kinds of technological activities (or "oil spillovers") throughout the 20th century, and the intensification of those spillovers in connection with the scarcity debate of the 1970s. I will further attempt to draw out some insights relevant to sustainability transition and innovation studies and to current debates about the oil industry's culpability for climate change."
You can find Mody's webpage here: https://www.maastrichtuniversity.nl/c.mody
...and more on his oil research here: http://www.maastrichtsts.nl/managing-scarcity-and-sustainability
February 22, 2022
Taylor Moore, Academy Scholar, The Harvard Academy for International and Area Studies, will share a chapter that "reconstructs the rich constellation of occult workers, occult objects, and their customers in late 19th and early 20th century Egypt. It uses Arabic sources and archival materials from ethnographic amulet collections to highlight the political and spiritual economy of women magico-medical practitioners at the center of this robust economy."
You can find her website at: https://wcfia.harvard.edu/taylor-m-moore
22 Febuary 2022, 2pm - 3:30pm EST
January 25, 2022
Erika Milam, Charles C. and Emily R. Gillispie Professor in the History of Science at Princeton University, will share a work in progress titled "Making Place in the Field: Science, Capitalism, and Knowledge" that looks at long-term research projects in animal behavior during the 1970s, '80s, and '90s. You can find the abstract below and the paper attached.
Abstract: By conceptualizing place-making as a dynamic process, this essay explores the history of two field sites that house long-term research projects in animal behavior: the Amboseli Baboon Project, cofounded by Jeanne Altmann in 1971, and Kay Holekamp’s Mara Hyena Project, which began in 1988. It highlights scientific place-making as crucial to the production of knowledge within behavioral ecology and invests our historical understanding of field sites with an appreciation for the intellectual processes that have transformed land into places for the generation of scientific data.
November 23, 2021
The Science, Capitalism, and Knowledge Commodities reading group will meet next Tuesday, 23 November from 2 to 3:30 PM Eastern.
Gustave Lester, PhD. Candidate, Harvard University and Beckman Dissertation Fellow at the Science History Institute will present a draft of his dissertation chapter: "Mineral Resources and Economic Nationalism in the Early Republic, 1780-1815."
The Zoom link will be available on the reading group webpage. We look forward to an exciting and productive discussion!
October 26, 2021
Evan Hepler-Smith, Duke University, "Handbook chemistry" from his ms. Compound Words: Chemical Information and the Molecular World, on the 19th century emergence of the chemical handbook and the chemical abstract journal.
September 28, 2021
Liat Spiro, College of the Holy Cross, "Patentability and Experience: Work, Class, and Risk in the Political Economy of Intellectual Property in Imperial Germany," on patenting as a domain of social politics and workplace political economy in Imperial Germany.
Eun-Joo Ahn is a PhD Candidate in the Department of History at University of California Santa Barbara. She researches on how astronomers in Southern California interacted with their physical and socio-economic environment at the turn of the twentieth century. Previously, she received her PhD in Astronomy and Astrophysics from the University of Chicago.
Joshua McGuffie is a Doctoral Candidate in the Department of History at UC Los Angeles. He researches the doctors and biologists of the Manhattan Projects’s Medical Section. In this project, he focuses especially on the values and practices they developed to count and quantify radiation and its biological effects. His project analyzes how techniques and judgments worked out in the field unfolded socially, politically, and environmentally.For his MA at Oregon State University, he studied ecologists at Hanford. This research has taken him to nuclear installations across the western United States. He was once questioned by sheriff's deputies who were concerned that he had trespassed while taking photographs on the edge of the Nevada Test Site.
Lee Vinsel studies human life with technology, with particular focus on the relationship between government, business, and technological change. His first book, Moving Violations: Automobiles, Experts, and Regulations in the United States, was published by Johns Hopkins University Press in July 2019. Since 2015, with his collaborator Andy Russell, Vinsel has organized and led The Maintainers, a global interdisciplinary research network that examines maintenance, repair, and mundane work with technology. Vinsel’s work has been published in several major history journals and has appeared in or been covered by Aeon, the New York Times, The Atlantic, Guardian, Le Monde, and other popular outlets.